Design & Engineering

This collection of design and engineering tactics is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather highlight the innovative, nonmandatory tactics that accommodate or encourage walking. They are grouped into four categories: design guidance, traffic-analysis techniques, intersection elements, and signal treatments. Some tactics are Federal Highway Administration–recommended treatments; the full list of federal “proven countermeasures” can be found at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/

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Adopt Context-Sensitive Street Design Guidelines

Definition

Context-sensitive street design guidelines require a collaborative approach to transportation planning. They need a shared stakeholder vision, comprehensive understanding of contexts, and design flexibility to balance the transportation needs of multiple modes while enhancing community and natural environments.

Guidance

  • Use interdisciplinary teams
  • Involve stakeholders
  • Seek broad-based public involvement
  • Achieve consensus on purpose and need
  • Address alternatives and all travel modes
  • Consider a safe facility for users and community
  • Maintain environmental harmony
  • Address community and social issues
  • Address aesthetic treatments and enhancements
  • Consider designing roads to meet a target, or desired travel speed, rather than a ‘design speed,’ or essentially the maximum speed that can be maintained by the design features of the roadway.iFederal Highway Administration. Speed Concepts: Informational Guide. September 2009. Consider retrofitting roads to achieve those target speeds

 

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Adopt Accessible & Attractive Streetscape Design Guidelines

Definition

The shape and amenities of sidewalks, crosswalks, and plazas are often determined by streetscape design guidelines. These guidelines can require that walking infrastructure is accessible to all persons regardless of ability or stature, and they can help create a safe, pleasant place for people to walk, sit, stand, and move around.

Guidance

  • Create a community advisory committee to meet regularly with guidelines staff during the creation of pedestrian-environment design guidelines
  • Reach out to the general public for input through community meetings, surveys, and an interactive website
  • Collaborate with technical agency staff to ensure feasibility of proposed guidelines
  • Guidelines should:
    • Incorporate proposed Public Rights-of-Way- Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) to ensure universal access
    • Minimize pedestrian risk from vehicles
    • Address pedestrian concerns, like safety, lighting, shade, seating, and sidewalk clearances and crossings
    • Create safe public space and seating
    • Address ecological concerns, including on-site stormwater management and the creation of local habitats where feasible
    • Create safe access to transit
  • Guidelines should address aesthetic and accessibility concerns simultaneously where feasible, as exemplified in these San Francisco Better Streets suggestions1San Francisco Planning Department. The Better Streets Plan. December 2010. 5-4. :
    • Add street trees, landscaping, stormwater facilities, and furnishings to:
    • Projects that dig up sidewalks
    • Traffic-calming projects
  • Include curb extensions in curb-ramp construction projects
  • Add pedestrian-oriented lighting when upgrading roadway lighting
  • Consolidate utilities, parking meters, signs, and poles to widen sidewalk clearances on any streetscape-improvement project
  • Include public art on projects that create new structures in the right-of-way

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Narrow or Reduce Travel Lanes

Definition

Streets frequently have more space allotted to cars than is necessary. This tactic entails redesigning new or existing roadways to reduce the width and number of travel lanes wherever possible. Techniques for achieving this include “road diets” and reducing travel-lane widths. A “road diet” typically refers to converting a roadway with two lanes in each direction to one lane in each direction with a center turning lane and bike lanes on the side.

Guidance

  • Travel-lane widths should not be based on the widest width allowable, but on the narrowest safe width
  • Evaluate transit routes, the number and design of intersections along the corridor, the number of driveways, and operational characteristics before implementing a road diet
  • Consider designing local streets that are too narrow for two full lanes to accommodate alternating two-way traffic
  • Analyze and understand the effects of the proposed change, and obtain input from the community stakeholders
  • Include contextual safety improvements in the project, such as intersection turn lanes, signing, pavement markings, signals or stop signs, transit stops, medians, sidewalk improvements, and bike lanes

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Build a Comprehensive Sidewalk Network

Definition

Sidewalks are roadways for walkers; they need to be comprehensive, integrated, and connected. Many communities and cities have discontinuous sidewalk systems that need connecting or upgrading to get people where they need to go. To most efficiently use their resources, jurisdictions should survey and analyze existing sidewalks to prioritize sidewalk improvements.

Guidance

  • Survey existing conditions
  • Track and store existing sidewalk conditions, possibly using a geographic information system (GIS)
  • Perform in-field assessments of existing conditions and existing ADA/PROWAG compliance
  • Address need for safe and accessible street crossings between sidewalks
  • Analyze sidewalk conditions in relation to census and land use data
  • Determine appropriate sidewalk widths based on existing volumes of people and adjacent land uses. Zupan and Pushkarev posit sidewalk minimums in Urban Space for Pedestrians
  • Prioritization criteria can include:
    • Potential demand (proximity to pedestrian attractors and corridor function)
    • Potential pedestrian risk (presence of physical buffers between moving traffic and pedestrians, traffic volumes, traffic speeds)
    • Existing sidewalk need (level of maintenance and ADA compliance)
    • Existing population need (health and socioeconomic levels of adjacent population)
  • Solicit public input and discussion when creating a matrix to prioritize projects
  • Consider alternative, cheaper sidewalk and street designs to achieve infrastructure- and stormwater-management goals
  • Create a separate program for community requested safety and sidewalk improvements
  • Install ADA and PROWAGiU.S. Access Board. Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Right of Way. July 2011. -compliant infrastructure
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Integrate Transit, Walking, and Cycling into Projects

Definition

The needs of transit, cyclists, and pedestrians should be integrated within the design and scope of transportation projects. This can be accomplished by improving infrastructure, modifying design speeds, reconfiguring roadways, and adapting traditional traffic analysis.

Guidance

  • Conduct traffic analysis in terms of person delay rather than vehicle delay to better account for all the people on the road. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), which outlines the computational procedures for determining the capacity and quality of service of roadways and intersections, focuses primarily on vehicle delay. HCM does not account for the passenger-efficiency of buses. Any delay should be recalculated from the number of vehicles to the number of passengers traveling through the corridor
  • Determine the appropriate design speed of transportation redesigns with the safety and convenience of pedestrians in mind
  • Integrate transit priority elements into street redesigns. Complete streets often slow traffic, which improves overall street safety, but can negatively affect bus services on that street. Including bus lanes, signal priority, and other bus-focused elements can ensure that these projects also promote transit use.
  • Design safe, convenient infrastructure for the entire door-to-door transit-trip passenger experience, including the routes between the transit stop, stops for travel in both directions (including street crossings), the location of the transit stop, the method of payment, and the transit vehicle itself
  • Incorporate Public Rights-of-Way-Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) to ensure universal access throughout the infrastructure improvements
  • Expand the concept of Complete Streets to the network; consider modes by network and routes rather than requiring every mode to be located on the same street
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Create Slow Zones

Definition

Slow zones consist of engineered traffic-calming measures such as speed humps, roundabouts, curb extensions, signs, optimized signal timing, and street markings to slow vehicles down to 20 miles per hour (mph) within clearly defined areas.

Guidance

 

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Turn Underutilized Asphalt into Grass and Other Uses

Definition

Underutilized, excessive roadway and/or parking space can be reassigned to pedestrian and/or bicycle uses. Underutilized or excessive roadways have more travel lanes (or parking spaces) than necessary for the number of cars using them. New uses of roadway or parking space could include public plazas with planters and seating areas, buffered bicycle lanes, and widened sidewalks.

Guidance

  • Analyze existing and proposed traffic conditions
  • Communicate and coordinate with local stakeholders for their support and design input throughout the design and planning process
  • Implement traffic changes using temporary materials to test the performance of plaza space so that redesign changes can be made or removed before investing resources to construct a capital project
  • Be sure the design of plazas or public space considers the needs of people with disabilities, including defining the space in a manner that is identifiable and detectable by pedestrians who are blind
  • Partner with a local organization or city department to provide ongoing maintenance and programming for the new public space
  • Provide movable street furniture and additional greenery where possible
  • Continually monitor before and after conditions for traffic and safety impacts, economic impacts, and real estate values in and around the project
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Build Pedestrian and Cyclist Bridges

Definition

These are bridges designed exclusively for pedestrians and bicyclists where at-grade solutions can’t be found—often over railways, waterways, or highways— that provide needed transportation links for walkers and cyclists.

Guidance

Exhaust at-grade solutions first, as those are often more walkable and less expensive

Locate bridges so that they are on the normal path of pedestrian travel with the least amount of vertical difference possible

Connect bridges to current or future pedestrian/bicyclist destinations, like transit hubs, parks, schools, job centers, arenas, and neighborhoods

Design logical, direct, clearly marked access points to and from the bridge

Provide access options for different modes and mobility levels, such as ADA ramps and stairs with a bike gutter

Retrofit nearby routes and intersections to accommodate pedestrians and cyclists

Design bridges wide enough for expected numbers of pedestrians and cyclists

Incorporate PROWAG into design elements

Provide adequate lighting for safety and security of bridge users

Consider screens to prevent falling debris

Provide at least an 8’ clearance for emergency or maintenance vehicles

Budget for ongoing maintenance

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Redesign Arterial Streets for Pedestrians

Definition

Arterial streets, typically multilane thoroughfares designed to speed cars from one destination to another, are often hazardous to people on foot. The Tri-State Transportation Campaign found that 60% of pedestrian deaths in the tri-state region of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut took place on arterial roadways.iTri-State Transportation Campaign. Most Dangerous Roads for Walking And How States Can Make Them Safer. January 2010. 2. Redesigning arterial streets for pedestrians involves adapting roadway geometry (including reducing or narrowing travel lanes), traffic-signal plans, and adjacent land uses of multilane thoroughfares to better accommodate non-automobile uses and create a safer, pedestrian-friendly environment.

Guidance

  • Interest communities and cities in redesign possibilities with a public visioning meeting, design charette, or design competition
  • Work with business improvement districts; since pedestrian-friendly environments see higher retail profits, use funds for street restructuring
  • Create mid-block neckdowns and crosswalks
  • Create safe crossings with signals or medians
  • Narrow roadways wherever traffic volumes and safety allow
  • Build pedestrian crossing islands
  • Widen medians into transit stops and/or landscape the median
  • Widen sidewalks where needed or desired
  • Plant street trees to act as a buffer between pedestrians and traffic
  • Construct a buffered bicycle path or shareduse greenway
  • Consolidate and minimize the number of driveways to reduce turning conflicts
  • Program temporary uses in parking lots at offpeak hours
  • Create pocket parks in open or vacant space between retail buildings
  • Connect pocket parks on one side of the street to the other through crosswalks, midblock chokes, and medians
  • Rezone adjacent land uses for denser development
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Collect Pedestrian Data

Definition

This refers to a systematic approach of counting pedestrians and walking activity within a defined area or jurisdiction. Data-collection methods are continually evolving but typically include manual counts, automatic recording technologies, origin-destination surveys, geographic-information-systems (GIS) analysis of census and land-use data, as well as intercept surveys. Databases of pedestrian information should catalog pedestrian crash locations and stratify crash details by crash type, time of day/year, weather conditions, demographics, and other variables.

Guidance

  • Assign dedicated staff or a project manager to set up data-collection equipment, staff locations, tabulate results, and share findings
  • Supplement automatic count data with
        • Manual counts
        • 24-hour counts at select locations and dates to show infrastructure use
        • Origin/destination surveys
        • GIS census analysis to identify factors that influence bicycling and walkingiNational Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project.
        • Models to extrapolate pedestrian volumes across a larger geographical distribution
        • Collect and analyze data on a regular basis
  • Publicly publish the results
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Integrate Pedestrian LOS Criteria into Traffic Analyses

Definition

Traditional traffic analysis evaluates the adequacy of a road design to meet vehicular travel demand using a quantitative measurement of delay called level of service (LOS). For many years, traffic-analysis procedures didn’t adequately address pedestrian travel demand in these road-design evaluations. The current Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) addresses this analysis gap with new multimodal LOS methodology. HCM’s multimodal LOS methodology, however, doesn’t include a lot of the factors that might influence walkability, such as adjacent land uses and sidewalk amenities.iTransportation Research Board of the National Academies. HCM2010: Highway Capacity Manual. Volume 3: Interrupted Flow. Chapter 17: Urban Street Segments. December 2010. 17–50. As a result, some traffic engineers have independently created pedestrian level-of-service criteria to rate road designs for pedestrians, usually using an alphabetical scale from A to F.

Guidance

  • Create a public-outreach process to solicit and incorporate the perspectives of residents, business owners, advocacy groups, and other stakeholders
  • Create walking audits with numbered evaluations of criteria that can supplement or be added to pedestrian LOS evaluations
  • Include standard categories of pedestrian LOS evaluation, such as:
    • Directness
    • Continuity
    • Street crossings
    • Visual interest and amenities in walking areas and adjacent land uses
    • Security
    • Physical conditions of paths or sidewalks
  • Vary evaluation techniques by:
    • Analysis scope (citywide, neighborhood, district)
    • Evaluation category
    • Whether a proposed development is project-or site-specific
  • Consider adjusting thresholds for criteria based on the specific pedestrian needs of defined areas or area types (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.)
  • Require that traffic-impact studies for significant developments include a pedestrian-impact assessment using this pedestrian LOS criteria
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Analyze Person Delay Instead of Vehicle Delay

Definition

In Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) traffic analysis, “person delay” is defined as the total time required to move individuals, as opposed to their vehicles, through a particular lane of an intersection. This approach to analyzing traffic through intersections is more transit- (and pedestrian-) friendly than measuring vehicle delay.

Guidance

  • Calculate person delay by multiplying the highway capacity software-derived volumes for each vehicle type by vehicle occupancy (e.g., bus passengers), and then by the intersection-based average vehicle delay in each lane group
  • In the absence of bus-lane delay calculation in Highway Capacity Software, measure delay from the right-turn lane, since right turns originate from the bus lane in a typical configuration
  • Multiply person delay for people traveling in cars using the average vehicle occupancy of cars in that corridor; work trips are about 1.1 or 1.2 people per vehicle while other trip types are closer to 2.0
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Daylighting

Definition

To “daylight” an intersection is to clear sight lines between pedestrian crossings and oncoming cars, usually by creating no-parking zones at the curbs in front of crosswalks at that intersection.

Guidance

Install no-parking signs to mark the existence and length of no-parking zones

Daylight at least 20′ (about one parking space) from the crosswalk at the near and far side of the intersection on urban streets with 20–30 mph speed limitsiAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2004. 52

Daylight at least 50′ (about two parking spaces) in advance of crosswalks at each intersection approach on streets with 35–45 mph speed limitsiAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2004. 52

Daylight at least 30′ in advance of each signal, stop sign, or yield signiAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2004. 52

Prohibit drivers from standing or parking vehicles at the curb within 20′ of a crosswalk at an intersection or within 30′ of any signal, stop or yield sign, or traffic-control signaliFederal Highway Administration. 56. Remove/Restrict Parking. Other Measures. n.d.

Evaluate impacts of daylighting by collecting crash data

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Raised Crosswalks

Definition

A raised crosswalk is a higher section of pavement with a marked crosswalk. It is placed across the street to encourage drivers to slow down. Raised intersections usually have sloped ramps for the driver leading and following the flat raised-crosswalk section.

Guidance

Construct a 10–15’ plateau 2–3” shorter than sidewalk level with straight 6’ ramps on either side

Consider drainage: relocate catch basins, install trench drains or drainage pipes where necessary

Install ADA ramps and detectable warnings (truncated domes) at the street edge for people with vision impairments

Incorporate proposed PROWAG accessibility guidelines into design

Highlight crosswalks with smooth, colored roadway surface materials rather than textured materials to ensure universal access

Evaluate impacts of daylighting by collecting crash data

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Pedestrian Crossing Islands

Definition

Located on the roadway between opposing lanes of traffic, pedestrian crossing islands separate pedestrians from vehicles at intersections or mid-block locations. They are typically raised medians or islands, though lower-cost versions can be made of pavement markings only. Crossing islands can also be referred to as center islands, refuge islands, or pedestrian islands.

Guidance

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Offset Crosswalks

Definition

An offset crosswalk is one with a center median that acts as both a pedestrian safety island and means of directing pedestrians to look toward oncoming traffic before crossing the second half of the street.

 

Guidance

  • The crosswalk offset can be a right angle or skewed depending on site conditions
  • Design islands with level cut-through foot paths for better ADA accessibility
  • Provide detectable warnings (truncated domes) at the each edge of the island cutthrough area for better ADA accessibility
  • Include a section of parallel curbing that is aligned with the direction of the crosswalk to redirect a blind or visually impaired pedestrian

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High-Visibility Crosswalks

Definition

Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians crossing roadways by defining the appropriate paths for them. While basic crosswalk markings consist of two transverse lines, an FHWA study found that continental markings were detected at about twice the distance upstream as the transverse markings during daytime conditions. In the study, this increased distance meant that drivers traveling at 30 mph had eight additional seconds of awareness of crossing pedestrians.iFederal Highway Administration. Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study (FHWA-HRT-10-068). October 2010.

Guidance

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Pedestrian-Detecting Traffic Signals

Definition

Pedestrian detectors can activate a pedestrian traffic control device, extend the crossing time for pedestrians already in the crosswalk, and shorten the crossing time if pedestrians have already cleared the crosswalk. Detectors can be pressure mats at the waiting area, infrared or microwave detectors mounted on the signal pole, or video cameras using remote sensor software at the waiting and crosswalk areas.

Guidance

  • Use Livewire or Bluetooth technology to set up and adjust the detection area without having to physically create or adjust zone boundariesiTraffic Technology International. August/September 2011. 94.
  • Integrate ADA/PROWAG requirements into design elements, including ramp grades
  • Provide adequate passing space around the waiting detection area on the sidewalk
  • Clearly indicate the waiting and crossing detection zones for pedestrians
  • Install accessible pedestrian signals to provide the signal information to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired
  • Provide nighttime lighting to increase pedestrian visibility and detector accuracy
  • Encourage pedestrian compliance through signals that respond within a matter of seconds to a pressed button or detected pedestrian, especially in school zonesiFederal Highway Administration Office of Safety. Safer Journey: Interactive Pedestrian Safety Awareness Library. 1998.
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Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons

Definition

Rectangular rapid-flashing beacons typically consists of two light- emitting-diode (LED) beacons on either side of a roadside pedestrian-warning sign that flash in a left-to-right pattern when pedestrians cross the street. The flashers, which use an irregular pattern like those on police vehicles, are turned on either when a pedestrian pushes a manual push button or when a pedestrian automatically triggers a pedestrian- detection system. Rectangular rapid-flashing beacons can also be called Rapid-Flash System, Stutter Flash, or LED Beacons.

Guidance

  • Install RRFBs in conjunction with regulatory/ warning signs and markers except for Stop, Do Not Enter, Wrong Way, and Speed Limit signsiFederal Highway Administration. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices on Streets and Highways. December 2009. 523.
  • Keep RRFBs unlit when there are no pedestrians present
  • Install an accompanying regulatory sign that says “when flashing”
  • Activate RRFBs by manual push buttons or automated passive-pedestrian detection
  • Use solar panel units to power RRFBs
  • Install devices with push button locator tones and an audible message that states “yellow lights are flashing” to meet ADA / PROWAG guidelines
  • Install RRFBs at medians as well as roadside locations for increased driver visibility and yielding

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Pedestrian Hybrid or HAWK Beacon

Definition

The pedestrian hybrid beacon, or High intensity Activated crosswalk, (HAWK), is a pedestrian-activated warning device for mid-block pedestrian crossings. The beacon, mounted above or beside the road, consists of two red lenses above a single yellow lens. The beacon head is unlit until a pedestrian pushes a button, which causes the beacon to illuminate a brief flashing and steady yellow interval, then a steady red indication to drivers. A pedestrian signal then indicates it is safe for pedestrians to cross while traffic is stopped. When the pedestrian signal starts flashing at the end of the crossing interval, the beacon displays alternating flashing red lights to drivers, letting them know their red light is about to end.

Guidance

  • Conduct public-outreach campaigns to teach pedestrians and drivers how to use and react to the signal
  • Install accessible pedestrian signals so the crossing is accessible to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired

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Advance Stop Lines

Definition

Stop lines are used to indicate the point behind which vehicles should stop for a Stop sign, a Stop Here for Pedestrians sign, or some other traffic-control device that requires vehicles to stop.

Guidance

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In-Road Pedestrian Signs

Definition

These are flexible signs placed in the median or centerline at unsignalized crossings announcing that drivers must yield or stop for crossing pedestrians.

Guidance

  • Install in a location where it does not conflict with traffic patterns or encroach into a travel lane: at the crosswalk on the centerline, on a lane line, or on a median island, but not postmounted on the left-hand or right-hand side of the roadway
  • Install in a location where it does block pedestrian traffic in the crosswalk
  • Install in areas with low volumes of turningtruck traffic or in medians
  • Install in narrower roadways to maximize visibility of the signs
  • Design the sign support to bend over and then bounce back to its normal vertical position when struck by a vehicle
  • Be consistent with state regulations, whether drivers must yield or stop to pedestrians in unsignalized crossings
  • Make the sign reflective if it’s left in place 24 hours a day

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Leading Pedestrian Interval

Definition

A leading pedestrian interval (LPI) is a 3- to 10-second pedestrian-only phase within a signalized intersection timing schedule that gives pedestrians a “head start” over cars going in the same direction or turning across the pedestrians’ paths. It is displayed by an advance walk indication for the crosswalk during which parallel and turning traffic continue to face a red signal.

Guidance

 

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Accessible Pedestrian Signals

Definition

Accessible pedestrian signals (APS) and detectors are designed to accommodate the needs of all pedestrians, including those with vision and mobility impairments. They provide information in nonvisual formats such as audible tones, speech messages, and vibrating surfaces to indicate the appropriate time for pedestrians to cross the street.

Guidance

  • Integrate the addition or upgrades of accessible pedestrian signals into routine signal maintenance and streetscape projects
  • At locations with lots of foot traffic, time pedestrian phases to come up automatically and keep signal cycles short (ideally 90 seconds maximum)
  • Follow the location, design, and maintenance requirements of accessible pedestrian signals as detailed in the proposed PROWAG guidelines and APS Guide to Best Practices, which include some of the following:
    • Accessible pedestrian signal shall provide both audible and vibrotactile indications of the walk interval
    • Preferred locations are on two separated poles located within 5’ of the crosswalk line farthest from the center of the intersection
    • Preferred audible walk indication is a rapid ticking sound
    • If two accessible pedestrian push buttons are placed less than 10’ apart or on the same pole, accessible pedestrian push button shall be provided with the following
      • A push button locator tone
      • A tactile arrow
      • A speech walk message for the walk indication
      • A speech push button information message
    • The accessible walk indication shall have the same duration as the pedestrian walk signal except if the pedestrian signal rests in walk
    • In areas with large numbers of senior citizens, post a high-contrast raised-print or largeprint sign of the street name that the push button controls
    • Push buttons should confirm that a pressed button/request for crossing has been received with a “wait” message and a light

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Ban Right Turns on Red

Definition

Right turn on red (RTOR) is a policy that permits drivers to turn right during a red light after coming to a complete stop, except where specifically prohibited by a posted sign. This nationwide policy (with the exception of New York City) was adopted by the Federal Highway Administration and Department of Energy in the 1970s. Research summarizing multiple studies concludes that the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at signalized intersections increased after adoption of the RTOR policy, mainly because a right-turning driver would look left for a gap in traffic and not see pedestrians or cyclists approaching from his or her right side.iRetting, Richard A., Nitzburg, Marsha S., Farmer, Charles M., Knoblauch, Richard L. Field Evaluation of Two Methods for Restricting Right Turn on Red to Promote Pedestrian Safety. ITE Journal. January 2002. 32. A no-right-turn-on-red (NRTOR) policy reverses that policy, prohibiting RTOR unless otherwise permitted at specific locations by posted signs. NRTOR policies could ban right turns in urban or high-pedestrian-density areas at all times or only during daytime hours, which is the time most pedestrian crashes occur.iRetting, Richard A., Nitzburg, Marsha S., Farmer, Charles M., Knoblauch, Richard L. Field Evaluation of Two Methods for Restricting Right Turn on Red to Promote Pedestrian Safety. ITE Journal. January 2002. 35.

Guidance

  • Reach out to community stakeholders to discuss pedestrian-safety concerns and potential ways to address them, including NRTOR
  • With the community’s support, clearly sign the entrance and exits to NRTOR zones to clarify expected behaviors of drivers and pedestrians

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Split Phasing

Definition

Split phasing divides the green light of a traffic signal into separate phases: one for turning vehicles and another for through-traffic and pedestrians.

Guidance

 

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Pedestrian Scramble or Barnes Dance

Definition

A pedestrian scramble, or Barnes Dance, is an exclusive pedestrian interval that stops all vehicular movement to allow pedestrians access to cross in any direction at the intersection, including diagonally. During a Barnes Dance, pedestrians can cross at all four crosswalks; during a pedestrian or signal scramble, pedestrians are encouraged to cross the intersections diagonally as well.

Guidance

  • Install accessible pedestrian signals

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